Embedded generation has profound implications for urban centres in South Africa, as it shapes local electricity use and investment patterns and has financial, technical, and governance consequences for electricity- distribution entities and the achievement of local energy-system goals. This research aims to understand the role of embedded generation in evolving urban electricity systems (including commercial, industrial residential, Eskom and municipal generation) in South African cities. It focuses on the case of metropolitan municipalities (“metros”), drawing illustrative content from four of these municipalities: eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality (“eThekwini”), City of Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality (“Ekurhuleni”), City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality (“Johannesburg”), and City of Cape Town (“Cape Town”). The project also considers the incentives shaping investment, including finance, policy and regulations, poor electricity system performance, and others.

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